Ontologies and Linked Data for ICOS

Data Service Workshop

Lund, 1-2 February 2016


  • In philosophy: the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations
  • In computer science: a formal naming and definition of the types, properties, and interrelationships of the entities that really or fundamentally exist for a particular domain of discourse

W3C's PROV-O ontology

Starting point terms


Early prototype

W3C's PROV-O ontology

Expanded terms

W3C's Organization ontology

ICOS Organization ontology

Early prototype

Data Object Specification

Semantic Web is

  • A bunch of technologies for publishing data on the Web so that computers can understand
  • A vision
  • The data and the services themselves
  • Endorsed by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
  • Also known as Linked Data
  • Including technologies known as RDF, triple stores, SPARQL, and OWL
  • Targeted at information architects and developers, not end users
  • Characterized by the motto: the Web is your database

Basic ideas

  • Every thing gets a URI (URL) — a globally unique id
  • Server response to a URI depends on the type of a client
  • All the statements are made in the form of triples
    "Subject - predicate - object"
  • Objects can be typed literals, the rest is URIs
  • Object of one triple can be a subject of another. Thus, the data model is a directed labeled graph

RDF triple structure

RDF document structure



  • "Web Ontology Language"
  • W3C standard
  • Classes, subclasses, properties, subproperties, ranges, domains, cardinality restrictions, class expressions, constraints, etc
  • Inference semantics
  • Expressed in RDF
  • owl:imports
  • Tooling (Protege 3, Protege 4, TopBraid Composer, reasoners)

Users and publishers

  • BBC
  • NASA
  • Google, Bing, Yandex, Yahoo (http://schema.org, RDFa)
  • data.gov and data.gov.uk
  • Dewey Decimal Classification system (dewey.info)
  • ICD-11 (OWL, Protege)
  • National Library of Sweden (Libris XL)

LOD Cloud


IBMDB2version 10+
OracleSpatial and Graph(Oracle Database 12c)
OpenLinkVirtuosoRDF + RDBMS
OpenRDFSesamePopular API
Franz, IncAllegroGraph1 Trillion triples!
OntotextGraphDBLinked Life Data
SystapbigdataHorizontally scaled
Clark&ParsiaStardogGood OWL support
TopQuadrantTopBraid PlatformSolution suite

Semantic Web usage at Carbon Portal

Upload workflow

Metadata submission

	"submitterId": "ATC",
	"hashSum": "17411322f6aaa3961165438a42a9346882e9f16a2f30d8026c3b8b1a0dccc969",
	"fileName": "staff.jpg",
	"producingOrganization": "cpinst:Hyltemossa_AS",
	"productionStart": "2015-12-20T13:05:01.962Z",
	"productionEnd": "2016-01-20T11:14:21.435Z",
	"packageSpec": "cpinst:monthlyCO2noaaPackage"


  • curl -H "Cookie: cpauthToken=<token>" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d @metadata.json https://meta.icos-cp.eu/upload
  • curl -H "Transfer-Encoding: chunked" -H "Cookie: cpauthToken=<token>" --upload-file <path> https://data.icos-cp.eu/files/<sha-256>
  • iRODS ils
  • https://epic.pdc.kth.se/v2/handles/11676
  • http://dx.doi.org/11676/F0ETIvaqo5YRZUOKQqk0aILp
  • https://meta.icos-cp.eu/objects/F0ETIvaqo5YRZUOKQqk0aILp